Author(s): Allan Third, Kevin Quick, Michelle Bachler, John Domingue
Abstract: Certain uses of knowledge graphs require strong guarantees of data integrity — for example, medical or financial applications — which can be verified by the end user automatically and reliably. Distributed ledger technologies based on blockchains are able to provide a trustworthy guarantee that records have maintained their integrity since publication. There are multiple different scenarios for providing such guarantees, varying in terms of where data is stored — from traditional quad stores through distributed file systems to directly on a blockchain itself — and the strength and scope of the integrity guarantee which can be offered — with or without reliable timestamping, and at the level of whole datasets or query results. In this paper we present the results of a number of experiments across these dimensions. In particular we use the lightweight Linked Data Fragments (LDF) standard as a frontend to each experimental setup, and benchmark their performance relative to a standard LDF server using a SPARQL backend, to evaluate each for performance as candidates to implement a trusted Semantic Web.
Keywords: Linked Data Fragments; Blockchain and Distributed Ledgers; Data integrity; Benchmarking